Obama pledged to engage with foreign publics and repair the United States' image abroad, an effort that peaked with his June Cairo address to the Muslim world. Early in Obama's first term, opinion surveys in the Arab world recorded a surge of more positive attitudes toward the United States, mostly in response to the popular new president.
But the reprieve did not last long. Obama's relatively conventional approach to foreign policy, especially in regard to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, proved a disappointment to Arab publics, and criticism quickly resurfaced. In , the Arab Spring sparked expectations that a shakeup in domestic politics would help the region move past its reflexive anti-Americanism and stop blaming others for its woes.
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Essays and criticism on Anti-Americanism - Critical Essays. 1 How has the perception of Anti-Americanism influenced the US decision to rely more on smaller military bases? How effective have these.
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go site Reviewed by Daniel E. That Haushofer served as the teacher of Rudolf Hess and as an influence on early National Socialism is well known. What is less known is that such sentiments as Haushofer's had been widespread among the middle class and intelligentsia in Germany for many decades, and were not solely the result of America's entry into World War I and its role in Germany's defeat.
Dan Diner's important, concise, and highly readable book sketches in several connected essays the development of anti-Americanism as an ideology from the late eighteenth century to the aftermath of the Gulf War of It was the Gulf War itself that spurred Diner.
He appears to have been amazed at the variety and sophistication of the arguments he heard in Germany against the United States as it pushed Germany to assist in the struggle against Iraq. He set out to find the roots and antecedents for all he was hearing and ultimately produced not so much a book about how all Germans, or even most Germans, see America as is disingenuously implied by the English title , but a book about how those with opinions biased against America have expressed themselves over the past or more years.
When Diner is finished, those who were not intimately familiar with the topic prior to reading his book will be astounded by the depth and history of anti-Americanism in Germany. Indeed, Diner views European anti-Americanism as being at its most profound and troubling precisely in Germany, the country that on the surface appears, to him and many others, the most Americanized in all Europe. The book moves chronologically; after the introduction, it first shows Romanticism as the "main workshop for lasting anti-American images and metaphors" p. Heinrich Heine, the Young Germany movement, and others "created an arsenal of anti-American stereotypes" p.
Retrieved 10 January People curse, shout and argue at great lengths with seemingly unmovable Americans, and complain bitterly that America's late arrival in the war is not something they should boast about. The USA in particular tends to arm opposition parties and rebels in countries where it disagrees with the government, and has as such armed and directly trained groups such as the Taliban in Afghanistan , not always caring that many supported groups have atrocious human rights records. Old immigrates, White Anglo Saxton Protestants, were the only people who were thought of as true Americans and not outsiders at the time. Equally important is the role of cognitive neoassociation analysis by Berkowitz, which acknowledges the environment and situational influences that can lead to feelings of aggression
Heine himself lampooned America as a place "where the most repulsive of all tyrants, the populace, hold vulgar sway" p. In the period running up to the First World War, surface animosity toward Britain and France, Diner argues, was stronger than any hostility for America. That war, however, would change much.
The United States, the nation that was, to the ideologically anti-American, "culturally and socially Germans found it vastly more humiliating to come up short in battle against an inferior America as compared to their long-running European rivals. During Weimar, when American business and industrial practices, along with American culture, made inroads into Germany, the stage was being set for an even more virulent intellectual anti-Americanism. As Germany's masses became more and more receptive to what they viewed as the blessings of American popular culture, intellectuals became steadily more scandalized at how "blind efficiency," "forced conformity," and "unbridled business enthusiasm" reigned p.
Adolf Hitler, whose political life began at the inception of the Weimar Republic, embodied this paradox of German anti-Americanism precisely: his "fascination with technology" p.
His drastic and ultimately fatal misunderstanding and underestimation of America mirrored well the same mistakes that had been committed by Germany's leaders in World War I. The final chapter makes the fascinating point that today's German anti-Americanists have pushed an "exonerating projection" of Nazism onto America p. That is, they now associate all the evil characteristics of Nazism not with their own past, but with the America that today serves as a continuing oppressor.